# Basics of processing and visualization of spatial data

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In this section, students will receive the basic theoretical knowledge necessary to successfully start working in geographic information systems (GIS). The main emphasis will be placed on those theoretical issues, a good understanding of which will allow in the future to avoid the most common mistakes during learning gissolution. In particular, we will talk in detail about the mathematical basis of maps (coordinate systems, datums and projections), the types of distortions and how to deal with them. Also, the main methods of cartographic representation will be considered in detail, the knowledge of which is a criterion for cartographic literacy.

## Spatial Data: Getting Started with Quantum GIS

1. Types of spatial data
2. Organization of a spatial data storage system
3. Quantum GIS: general information, installation and configuration
4. Quantum GIS: Basics of Working with Spatial Data
5. Attribute information in spatial datasets
6. Quantum GIS modular structure principle

Spatial data (geodata) is the basis of all existing geographic information systems. Unlike text, image, or tabular files, geodata formats have certain features that make them difficult to work with. On the example of the open GIS Quantum GIS, the basics of working with spatial data and the rules for their storage will be considered in detail. It will also touch upon the basic principle of modern GIS organization – the principle of modularity, which makes it possible to significantly expand the toolkit for working with spatial data.

## Preparing spatial data for visualization

1. Sources of spatial data
2. Fundamentals of Editing Attribute Information
3. Editing feature geometry
4. Processing text and tabular data to create new geodatasets
5. Raster Data: Anchor and Vectorization

The first step towards creating a map is finding the material you need. And if the search for statistical data is sometimes not very time-consuming task, obtaining the necessary spatial data sometimes turns into a serious problem. This section will discuss in detail the issues of both the search for ready-made geodata and the issues of editing them and creating your own sets of spatial objects based on various sources of information.

## Attribute information processing methods

1. Working with the attribute table; calculation of the geometric characteristics of the object
2. Calculating Additional Attributes Using Conditions
3. Adding statistics from external sources
4. Principles of filtering data in GIS
5. Filtering data by attributes and spatial characteristics

Attribute information is the basis for creating a cartographic image. Typically, pre-built geodatasets contain very little attribute data. Therefore, the most important task immediately before the creation of a map is the “reduction” of spatial objects and statistical information, as well as the calculation of derived indicators necessary for mapping. Special attention in this section will be given to the basic principles of data filtering.

## Creating a cartographic image in Quantum GIS

1. Types of scales for data classification, principles of selection of color scales
2. Cartogram
3. Card diagram
4. Absolute and relative ranges
5. Linear and traffic signs
7. Using several methods of cartographic representation

Each method of cartographic image has its own set of features and drawing rules. In this section, using simple examples in Quantum GIS, we will consider the principles of creating simple maps based on ready-made attributive information using various image methods.